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Annual Report on Latin America and the Caribbean (2020-2021)


By:Yu Chai, Weiguang Liu, Peng Wang

Publisher:Social Sciences Academic Press


Publication Date:2021-11-12


Paper book:US $
Ebook:US $
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2064 1000

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Annual Report on Latin American and Caribbean(2020-2021) systematically reviews the political,economic,social and international relations situation in Latin America and the Caribbean since 2020,taking into account the tremendous impact and profound impact of COVID-19 on Latin America’s economic and social development,politics and international relations. The paper summarizes and thinks about the new problems and challenges in the development of Latin American countries,analyzes their causes,and tries to study their changing trends accurately.

In 2020,Latin America has been the hardest hit region by the COVID-19 pandemic,which has had a profound and all-round impact on the politics,economics,society and international relations of the region.

Thepandemic has severely affected the economic and social development of Latin America. In 2020,the region fell into the worst economic recession in 120 years. The COVID-19 has exacerbated the risks faced by Latin American countries already in the declining economic cycle,with high public debt,increased currency volatility and the accumulation of social risks adding to economic uncertainty. Unemployment,poverty and inequality have worsened in all countries.

The combination of the epidemic and economic and social factors has made it more difficult for governments to govern with increased political pressure. Thepandemic has not only disrupted the established electoral agenda of regional countries,but also intensified domestic political differences and conflicts. In 2021,Latin America will usher in a new election cycle and continue to face various governance dilemmas brought about by the continuing spread of COVID-19. Political uncertainty and the risk of political crisis and social unrest will continue to increase.

Thepandemic has seriously eroded poverty reduction in Latin American countries in the past 10 years. Latin America has witnessed a sharp deterioration in social indicators,a surge in poverty,increased employment difficulties,further prominent social inequality and accelerated downward mobility of social classes. The pandemic has also magnified little-noticed problems in Latin America,such as under-resourced health systems and the digital divide. Although social protests were restrained by the pandemic,public discontent intensified as the pandemic continued to spread,and protests began to rise again in the second half of 2020.

Cooperation in the fight against COVID-19 has not brought Latin American countries closer to unity. Regional integration is still at a standstill,regional governance is in trouble,and dependence on the outside world has become prominent. Dramatic shifts in the international balance of power continue to affect Latin America,which is increasingly caught up in a geopolitical climate characterized by an intensification of superpower games. The United States has accelerated its return to the Americas and constantly improved its Latin American policy tools. The goal of the Biden administration’s Latin America policy is still to control the region.

Trade between China and Latin America and the Caribbean has withstood the test of COVID-19 and maintained a steady momentum. China’s investment in Latin America rebounded,and became an important driving force for China-Latin America relations. China and Latin America and the Caribbean have carried out all-round cooperation against the pandemic and maintained a friendly and cooperative tone in bilateral relations. The role of enterprises as important actors in China-Latin America relations became more salient.

Looking ahead,the trend of the epidemic remains a key factor affecting the economic and social situation in Latin America. Economic recovery is expected in 2021,but it will be fragile and slow. In the post-COVID-19 era,short-term risk prevention and stable growth are the top priorities for Latin American countries. In the medium term,reducing economic vulnerability through structural reforms and regional economic integration;In the long term,a new development model should be implemented to promote coordinated economic and social development. The epidemic has brought uncertainties and new opportunities to China-Latin America cooperation,and the continuing impact of the game between major countries on international relations in Latin America deserves our attention.