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Annual Development Report of Mongolia (2021)


By:Shaokun Liu, Lijun Fan

Publisher:Social Sciences Academic Press


Publication Date:2022-02-16


Paper book:US $
Ebook:US $
Paper Book& Ebook:US $
2158 1000

Table of contents:

About the author(s):


2019 is a year full of “big events” in Mongolia,from the replacement of the Speaker of the Parliament(Chairman of the National Great Hural)with Gombojavyn Zandanshatar at the beginning of the year to the thorough investigation of the corruption case of the former Prime Minister in the middle of the year,and the adoption of the constitutional amendment at the end of the year. These seemingly unrelated events reflect the changes in Mongolia’s political environment,resulting changes in Mongolia’s economy,society,and diplomacy.

The Reports on Mongolia’s Development:2021 analyzes selected 14 topics closely focusing on the above-mentioned political,economic,social,cultural,and diplomatic events of Mongolia during 2019-2020 and their impacts. The book consists of 6 parts. The general report analyzes the overall situation of Mongolia’s social and economic development.

Through a series of economic measures of the “new team”,Mongolia’s economic development showed a good momentum,with a GDP of 13.64 billion U.S. dollars,reaching a new high in the past five years. The fiscal balance of revenue and expenditure has increased its stimulating effect on economic and social development. In 2019,the agriculture and animal husbandry industry achieved a “big harvest”,meanwhile,transportation and tourism have become the new growth. Foreign trade shows the characteristics of diversified trading partners,diversified export commodities,and diversified investment markets. The economic lagging situation in 2019 turned for the better way,with foreign exchange reserves reaching a record high of 4.2 billion U.S. dollars. The surplus foreign exchange reserves contributed to Mongolia’s fight against the epidemic in 2020,and also laid the foundation for the People’s Party to successfully complete the “constitutional amendment” and win the 2020 National Great Hural election.

The most direct manifestation of economic development is social stability and cultural prosperity. The numbers of unemployed in 2019 were 37000 persons which were the lowest in recent five years,12.6% lower than those of2018. The population of Mongolia has appeared a new migration trend in recent years. The population flowing into Ulaanbaatar has decreased,meanwhile,the population entering Khangai Areas and Central Regions has increased. The number of immigrants who migrated into the capital in 2019 was 4836 persons fewer than in 2017. Another problem caused by population mobility in Mongolia is the reduction of nomadic populations in the steppe. In 2019,the population of herders dropped to 285000 persons. The population reduction and labor force reduction directly affect the development of traditional industry-animal husbandry. In order to improve the high-quality development of animal husbandry,Mongolia has begun to try to restore the cooperative development model in pastoral areas. However,due to the government’s limited support,the Mongolian cooperative model is still in the exploratory stage.